A very damp day, some part Foggy, not very Cold

Charles 12 Comments


A guest post by Mike Rendell

We are very grateful to Mike Rendell for so generously sharing with us this fascinating account of an eighteenth century funeral. Mike Rendell is a published author who specializes in 18th Century history. He blogs on all aspects of life in the Georgian era here.  Mike is an especially fortunate family historian. He tells me “I still cannot believe how much of my ancestors’ paperwork has survived from the Georgian period, and it is good to share it.” 

I recently came across the bill submitted to my ancestor Richard Hall by the Funeral Director on the occasion of the death of his first wife Eleanor in 1780. The undertakers (that is to say, the company which undertook the arrangements….) were John Cooper & Co. Here is the bill:




I have included it because it gives some idea of what was involved in a funeral in the Georgian Era in the latter part of the 18th Century. Eleanor Hall had died in her 47th year – she got up and had breakfast as normal on 11th January 1780 at her home at One London Bridge, had a splitting headache at midday, and was dead by six in the evening. In all probability she suffered a brain haemorrhage. It must have been a terrible shock for Richard, who had married Eleanor nearly 27 years earlier, and for their three grown-up children, who all lived at the property.

Richard records her death in his diary “Oh the affliction of this Day. My Dear and Affectionate Wife was suddenly seiz’d with a pain in her head after Twelve at Noon, which issued in a Fit; no Prescription of Physician Avail’d”



Richard was devastated and made this beautiful cut-out in paper as a memorial. The memento is only just over one inch across and is extraordinarily delicate.

He would have employed the firm of John Cooper & Co to make all the arrangements for the actual funeral, which was to take place at Bunhill Burial Grounds (where many Dissenters were buried). Richard and Eleanor were both Baptists and as an additional incentive to choose Bunhill, it was where both her parents had been buried back in 1754. The expenses included opening up the family vault and constructing a tent over it so as to keep prying eyes at bay.



The invoice starts by showing the actual funeral as taking place on January 18th, exactly one week after Eleanor’s death.

To start with the actual coffin and furniture:

An inside Elm Coffin lined and ruffled with fine Crape and a mattress (£1/11/6)

A Superfine Sheet, Shroud and Pillow (£1/15/00)

An outside lead coffin with plate of Inscription (£4/10/00)

An Elm case covered with fine Black Cloth, finish’d in the best Manner with black nails and drape, Lead Plate Cherubim handles, lead plate and wrought Gripes (that is to say, grips) (£5/10/00).

Then there were the extras:

4 Men going in with Lead Coffin and Case (10/-)

7 Tickets and Delivering – 7 shillings. (These would have been official invitations to attend the funeral service, sent out to close friends and often in the form of Memento Mori like this one, shown courtesy of the University of Missouri).



Hanging the Shop and Stair-case in Mourning (in other words, draping black cloth over the entire ground floor and stairs of One London Bridge, from where the funeral procession started its sad and solemn journey)

Use of 16 double silver’d sconces and Wax Lights for ditto

2 Porters with Gowns and Staves with Silk cover & hats & gloves

The best Pall



There then follow a few items which are hard to decipher. What looks like:

A coffin lid of black feathers and man in hatband and gloves

Crape hatbands

Silk ditto

Rich three quarter Armageen (?) scarves for a Minister

12 Pairs of Men’s laced kid gloves

2 Pairs of Women’s ditto

6 Pairs of Men’s and Women’s plain and one pair Mitts

Use of 11 Gent Cloaks

A Hearse and 4 coaches with Setts of horses

Velvet Coverings and black feathers for hearse and six

10 Hearse pages with truncheons , 6 of ye bearers

10 Pairs of gloves and favours for ditto

Eight coach pages with Hatbands and gloves

Use of 5 Coachmans cloaks

10 pairs of gloves for ditto and Postillion

Paid at Bunhill for opening the Vault and for Tent

Fetch and carrying Company

Turnpike and drink for the Men

A total of £51/8/6 which you would need to multiply by perhaps seventy to give a modern-day equivalent i.e £3500 or $5250

It must have made a sombre and imposing sight as the funeral cortege wended its way north of the Hall household on its one mile journey to the graveside. As Richard noted in his diary that night, it had been “a very damp day, some part Foggy, not very Cold” You can almost see the black horses with their black plumes, attended by page boys dressed from tip to toe in black, the heavy coats of the pall bearers, the coffin lined with black velvet….

Paper cut out made by my 4xgreat-grandfather Richard Hall 230 years ago. It isnt actually a funeral procession (as far as I know) but it could well have been….






  1. Charles

    Many thanks to Mile Rendell for this fascinating and vivid snippet of history. The arrangements sound magnificent, and perhaps very satisfying if investment this level of elaboration is within one’s means.

    The paper-cuts are beautiful.

    I’m wondering whether the unclear writing about the scarves might be referring to a type of Irish wool?

  2. Charles

    What a delightful ( wrong word?) tale – thank you! I really liked the example ticket – ‘Remember to die’ ‘You are desired to accompany the corps’ how wonderfully real – and also ‘by nine of the clock in the evening precisely’ I found this post fascinating – I was amazed by the cutouts – and delighted by the beautifully handwritten invoice. I love to read things that have been written with a proper pen on proper paper by a proper person…such connections.

    1. Charles

      Glad you found it interesting. I have decided to have the paper cut outs (there are about 60 which my 4xGreat grandfather made) published as a book – the world seen through my ancestor’s eyes. It will never be a best seller but the cut-outs are exquisiteñly done and are amazing in their detail. Mike

      1. Charles

        Paper cuts are very ‘in’ at the moment, thanks to the influence of Rob Ryan, so you never know! It would be wonderful to see the whole collection.

  3. Charles

    The website “measuringworth.com” attempts to place historic values in a modern context. It’s obviously a bit complicated but their assessment of the current value of £51 8s 6p ranges from £5320 (based on Retail Price Inflation) to £69 900 (based on changes to wages) or £87 400 (based on changes to Gross Domestic Product).

    1. Charles

      The figures I have used are from the National Archive Office at Kew, giving an inflation rate since that time of roughly 80-fold. But I agree that if you take into account not just inflation, but average household income and average wages you get a much higher figure. A labourer might have got by on 25 pounds a year – so this funeral cost twice that amount.
      My ancestor was clearly at pains to show that he could afford the best – especially as his late wife was a wealthy heiress when she married, and of course Richard got the lot!

Leave a Reply

XHTML: You can use these tags: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <s> <strike> <strong>